COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

By now you’ve probably heard of COVID-19,
or coronavirus disease discovered in 2019, which is responsible for a global pandemic.
Thus far the main country affected has been China, but it has spread to a number of other
countries around the world to a varying degree. The virus was initially referred to as the
2019-nCoV, or the 2019 novel coronavirus and was informally called “Wuhan coronavirus”.
The World Health Organization named the disease COVID-19 because it doesn’t refer to a geographical
location, an animal, a person or group of people – all of which can lead to stigma.
They also wanted to make it pronounceable and related to the disease – not an easy task!
The virus was officially named SARS CoV-2, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
2, because it’s genetically very similar to the SARS coronavirus which was responsible
for…well the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, outbreak in 2002. So SARS-CoV-2 causes
COVID-19. Now, coronaviruses that circulate among humans
are typically benign, and they cause about a quarter of all common cold illnesses. But
occasionally, coronaviruses that circulate in an animal reservoir mutate just enough
to where they’re able to start infecting and causing disease in humans, if they’re
given an opportunity. In 2002 SARS was a coronavirus that hopped over from bats to civets, which
is a cat-like mammal; and then over to humans. And in 2012, there was MERS, which was a coronavirus
that hopped over from bats to camels a few decades ago and then circulated among camels
for quite some time before infecting humans. COVID-19 most likely also started with bats,
but this time the intermediate host was probably a pangolin, an animal that looks like a cross
between an anteater and an armadillo. That’s based on the fact that scientists identified
a coronavirus in pangolins that’s a 96% genetic match to SARS-CoV-2. Sadly, pangolins
are heavily trafficked around the planet, largely because people believe that their
scales have healing properties. Because they’re moved around the world rather than left in
the wild, there are ample opportunities for a coronavirus to go from a pangolin to a human. As of February 11, 2020, there have been 43,103
cases of COVID-19 and 1,018 deaths, with a fatality rate of 2.4%, according to WHO. The
vast majority of cases and deaths have occurred in China. For some perspective, the 2002 SARS
outbreak resulted in 8,098 cases and 774 deaths, so the fatality rate was around 9.6%. And
the 2012 MERS outbreak results in 2,494 cases and 858 deaths, bringing the fatality rate
to 34%. Finally, for the 2014 Ebola outbreak, which was not due to a coronavirus, there
were 28,639 cases and 11,316 deaths. The fatality rate was a whooping 40%! At a microscopic level, coronaviruses are
single strand positive sense RNA viruses with protein spikes on their surface that look
a bit like a crown under a microscope. In fact, “corona” is latin for crown. Besides
looking majestic, these spikes allow the virus to invade cells lining the respiratory tract
and lungs. After binding, the coronavirus enters and takes over the cellular machinery
to make more and more copies of itself so it can spread to the surrounding cells and
get into the mucus. Sometimes the infection is mild, and some
people don’t develop any symptoms at all. For others, they can develop symptoms that
can range from mild symptoms like fever, cough, and shortness of breath, all the way to serious
problems like pneumonia. Severe lung damage can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome,
or ARDS, which occurs when the lung inflammation is so severe that fluid builds up around and
within the lungs. The severe infection can cause septic shock, which happens when the
blood pressure falls dramatically and the body’s organs are starved for oxygen. ARDS
and shock are the main cause of death for people with the infection, and this is more
likely to occur in those over the age of 60, smokers, and people with previous medical
conditions like hypertension. In addition to causing disease, coronaviruses
can spread quickly. Usually the virus spreads when people cough or sneeze, and tiny droplets
containing the virus are released. These droplets can land on another person’s mouth, nose,
or eyes, and that allows the virus to enter a new person. Virus can also be found in a
person’s stool, and in rare situations coronavirus has been transmitted from one apartment to
another within a residential building. This was seen in the 2002 SARS epidemic. At that
time, faulty plumbing allowed virus-containing fecal matter originating from one person’s
apartment to drift from drainage pipes back up into fixtures like sinks and toilets within
other apartments in the same building. This created a terrible smell and allowed the virus-containing
droplets to deposit on bathroom surfaces, ultimately causing people in those apartments
to get ill. Something similar may have happened with COVID-19, and this is being actively
investigated. Once a person is infected, symptoms develop
an average of 5 days later. This is called the incubation period. However the incubation
period varies from person to person, and in some studies, the incubation period lasted
as long as 24 days! Now there’s debate about whether or not asymptomatic people can spread
the disease, because these people typically have low levels of circulating virus. But
even if they do, asymptomatic transmission likely plays a minor role in the overall epidemic.
Viruses are given a reproductive number or R-naught based on how quickly they spread,
and person to person transmission has been confirmed both in and outside of China. An
R naught of 1 means that an infected person passes it on to 1 new person, an R-naught
of 2 means that 1 person spreads it to 2 new people, and so forth. If the R naught is below
1, the infection peters out, if it’s 1 it stays steady, and if it’s above 1, then
it continues to spread. The current estimate for the SARS-CoV-2 R naught is between 2 and
2.5. Of course that’s an average, with some spreading the disease less, and others – called
superspreaders – spreading the disease at a much much higher rate. The exact cause of
these superspreaders is unclear, perhaps they are just in contact with more folks, perhaps
their bodies naturally shed more virus, or perhaps there’s some other reason altogether. To confirm the diagnosis, there should be
a real time polymerase chain reaction or rt-PCR tests, a quick test used in many labs and
hospitals that can detect very small amounts of viral RNA. Treatment is focused on supportive care – providing
fluids, oxygen, and ventilatory support for really ill people. There’s also some early
data showing that three medications are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory
setting. These medications are chloroquine, an anti-malarial drug; ritonavir, an anti-HIV
medication; and remdesivir, an antiviral drug previously used against Ebola. Remdesivir
was given to the first US patient with COVID-19 on day 11 of his illness as he was clinically
worsening, and he began to improve the very next day. Large scale clinical trials using
remdesivir are already underway in China. Unfortunately there’s no vaccine currently
available to protect against COVID-19. At best, it looks like a vaccine will be many
months away. So the goal is to avoid human to human transmission, starting with isolating
people with COVID-19. Coronaviruses don’t usually spread over long distances in the
air, but they can travel roughly 3 feet or 1 meter from one person to another on tiny
droplets of saliva, which are produced when someone’s coughing or sneezing. In addition,
some strains of coronavirus can survive on surfaces for over a day. With that in mind,
if you’re a healthy person living in a non-outbreak area, the recommendation is to avoid travel
to disease outbreak areas, generally stay away from crowded places, and stay at least
6 feet or 2 meters away from anyone with symptoms. Wearing a surgical mask is not recommended
because the general risk of getting COVID-19 in these settings is so low. As always, careful
hand washing is key and it should be done with soap or alcohol-based hand sanitizers
and scrubbing. Also, avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth—this is the area, known
as your T-zone is a common entry point for viruses into the body. For healthcare workers who are around people
with COVID-19, the recommendation is to apply droplet and contact precautions. That includes
wearing personal protective equipment like a clean, dry surgical mask, gloves, long-sleeved
gowns, and eye protection like goggles or a face shield. When performing a procedure
that generates aerosol, like tracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, CPR, or noninvasive ventilation,
it’s important to wear a N95 respirator. This prevents 95% of the small particles,
like respiratory droplets, from passing through. To recap, the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes a respiratory
disease called COVID-19. The virus probably originated from bats, then went to pangolins
as an intermediate host, and finally to humans. The virus travels in respiratory droplets
and enters the body via the mouth, nose, or eyes. Once inside the body, it replicates
in the respiratory system, causing symptoms like fever, cough, and shortness of breath.
Some people might develop more dangerous complications like pneumonia, ARDS, and shock. Treatments
are focused on supportive care, but certain medications like Remdesivir are currently
in clinical trials. In the meantime, the best strategy is prevention — this includes careful
hand washing, avoiding traveling to disease outbreak areas and crowded places when possible,
avoiding touching your T-zone, and if you’re a healthcare worker to use personal protective

100 thoughts on “COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

  • I'd still wear a surgical mask when I'm in crowded, touristy areas, not risking some guy who may be carrying the virus coughing into my face.

  • The observation that the virus slipped out of a research centre being true, a straightforward suggestion for the future. The concerned Governments need not discontinue such researches. Let them research to build a big arsenal to destroy the world at some point of time. But, what the Government should do is to isolate such centres away from the thickly populated places and relocate centres in deserted islands, in deserts, cold plains etc…

  • Who the fuck unlikes such informative, well presented, important video?!
    Douche bags!!
    May The Doctor’s soul rest in peace! Along with all who lost there lives in the outbreak!

  • COVID-19 is now known to be airborn too and surviving up to 9 days on surfaces. Super spreaders are these without symptoms, not knowing they are affected.

  • I really hope it’s just coincidental that I have the cold at this point of time, considering the news just revealed a case of the covid-19 on a fairy near my town 😕

  • see if only those animals JUST TOLD US THEY WHERE SICK WE WOULD OF AVOIDED THIS WHOLD SITUATION, if only we had some dr.. who.. could talk to animals. i dont know maybe he could do a little to help us


  • 1:27 So we should in future refine the drinking water even for wild animals to avoid mutations of bacteria circulate between the species

  • Beware of coronavirius😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷😷

  • Here's a conspiracy theory MAYBE this is a biological warfare weapon that the Chinese developed to see how many people could get affected and die

  • Why the panic? Every year worldwide 5 to 10% of the population is infected by influenza. With kids about 20 to 30%. Usually it's not serious or even asymptomatic. Nevertheless 3 to 5 million people get seriously ill and 250.000 to 500.000 people die.

    The numbers with the coronavirus are still far less serious so far. Can we include the corona virus with the normal flu ?

  • I’m confused about “surgical mask not recommended”…ofc it’s not 100% preventable but it still acts as a barrier…i guess it’s talking about US only…
    this covid19 has pretty similar death rate to the flu ~2%…probably a little more deadly and SOB is not an initial symptom for the flu..

  • 9:34 I was in Asia for the last couple weeks and just got back to the US, everyone there wears a surgical mask, literally I get looks if I don't wear one. Actually just made a video talking about my experiences, there's clips I took of random places you'll see everyone literally in a mask. We're just ultra lucky here in the US, being farther and thus safer than more than half the world right now!!

  • I love how he stright up lies about the animal being trafficked around the world. Lier it’s trafficked to china because chines think that it has healing power

  • Excellent video. Well done. I can't tell you how many updates I've seen on this pandemic that have increased my paranoia over the situation. This is genuinely the first that comforted me. Thank you for that

  • I have blood cancer and I am going to die but I have one wish that I get like 1000 subscribers. I wish you fulfill my dream before I die. 😭😭😭

  • May God bless coronavirus, and save this world from us… So called Human beings. Worst living beings in the world. We're so selfish and greedy. Mother Nature always try to balance things, with her own ways. Everyone of us will die one day, and don't put ur comments as if we're immorals. If only love and peace prevails, this heaven is going to be treated as hell.

  • I’m an exchange student from America living in one of the hotspots of Corona Virus (Milan, Italy) and I’m really freaking out because I feel feverish and I have a stuffy nose

  • & why ISN'T ANYONE even Mentioning …. GET YOUR VITAMINS in LIKE Multi Vitamins V-C & B-6, B-12 or B-Complex I didn't hear nay thing like THAT here or on any other SUPER information Videos … LIKE THIS ONE… WTF Sheeple

  • if you are a health worker … what if it`s winter, and u get simple cold or nose run, and u like lots of other people work in bars, supermarkets where are dozen of people .. and it would seem strange if u would wear mask infront of anyone cause Boss and ethitequet does not allow it ? oh shit … its like 60% people at current time in the northern countries

  • Thank you! ❤️ I believe you and I believe in the good spirit of good scientists and doctors like Dr. Li Wenliang, RIP! Fuck conspiracy theories, its natural that mutations occur, lets not hate each other, lets fight SARS-CoV-2gether!

  • The cure to the coronavirus is clued in , in the book An Elegant Defense, by Richtel. Jst heard an health administrator on TV 2-26-20 say that there is no cure because we do not understand it. You don't have to understand it to help the human immune system to take it out. The "Medzhitov scramble" AKA the infinity anti-body manufacturing machine within everyone's immune system, that occurs in the B cells, already has the right antibody especially in people who have survived it. Just a matter of using the MAB (Mono-clonal- AntiBody) cloning technique to manufacture the vaccine. Won't the IBM Watson be able to help ID the right B cells?

  • DOES NO ANY TROUBLE TO HEAL THIS… <<<>> If to somebody is interesting this – In the year 2018 due the cancers died 35 thousands Danes. Such statistics… To this country("why they are dying – it is the perfectly ventilated land..?") in
    the beginning of the previous year gave a recommendation, how to heal the
    cancer (by the way – sugar diabetus also…). PREVIOUS YEAR'S STATISTIC THEY DO
    NOT GAVE, BECAUSE EASY TO SEE WHY..? They simple should be in the troubles to
    explain why due the cancers died 6299 persons up to August of 2019… ONLY… <<>>
    NOW… If do you wants to heal a coronaviruses – my recommendation is simple to
    scratch time by time a right abdominal side… <<>> It is te do not
    Truth, that human is weak against the coronaviruses… Is the another and the
    very simple reason – he is resistant in specific season… He is weak only, due
    the command to be resistant already now (nah… it is the too warm year this). Other
    nuance is human's synthesis with the nature in this… The questions of
    associate resistance's and his "composition", reactions to the fishes
    spawning season… So… Good thing is to think the carps (especially…does
    enough such "selection") as the trouble's reason. Be in the will
    "over their the condition's question… " in this an earliest
    spawning's year. Good Bye. Mindaugas Karalis P.S. If doctor will say, that
    necessary to do fully other – YOUR AGREEMENT, PSICHOLOGIC STRESS – this will be
    a reason only of complications ONLY… You can to heal this by the help of
    anabolic steroids (if chemical way is the basic to You), but an effect
    (conditional Your stability) will be the same…

  • I don't wna say it's mostly due to the disguisting practice of the chinese eating raw bat meat in wuhan. But it's mostly because of that and their lack of hygene.

  • What if the coronavirus was meant to be made for biological warfare. That's why Chinese authorities are scared to disclose some information.

  • China must be stopped from having LIVE / WET MARKETS where animals are skined alive, or eaten alive plus live bears are kept in cages and have tubes inserted into their gallbladder (bear bile farming) so the Chinese can suck out bile which they believe have healing properties THIS HAS TO STOP !!!

  • At 3:50, you left out the part of the virus ALSO being comprised of 4 different HIV spliced sections within it, to increase the infection rate up to 1,000. times? Yes, it was shown to be 1,000. more times infectious due to the HIV insertions and their "hooking" effect. It grabs on to the lung tissue up to 1,000. times better than SARS did, and allows the virus to insert itself efficiently and infect the host via their abundant lung ACE2 receptors. This can only come from a Bio LAB. I think that would be worth noting Dr?

    At 6:40, you under-represent the Ro potential of asymptomatic spreaders!!?! [email protected]?! Many cases show 10+ people infected by these asymptomatic individuals!! Are we still supposed to be fearing the flu instead?

    You also didn't mention the complication rate which is requiring an ICU admission equaling 15% of ALL patients? This data is from the latest study from Wuhan, including over 70,000. patients. This complication rate will increase the overall CFR (case fatality ratio) closer to 15% once the worlds hospitals are overwhelmed with cases and there are no more artificial breathing machines to keep patients alive. We both know there are VERY FEW ICU beds already, there are not 15% X 60% of the world population available, which is the current forecast of likely infections. 8 billion people times 15%, that's a pretty statistically important number to share Dr? And Wuhan is a perfect example of that. Their CFR is 4.4% due to it, and that is based on their "official" death toll, which is grossly under-reported. Wuhan has incinerated 1,200. bodies per day since January 10th, per Wuhan employee reports from their mortuaries. Now, Wuhan has received 40 portable cremation incinerators – crafted inside of shipping containers! Hmmm, wonder why?

    China is also beating stray dogs to death on the streets NOW, in fear of the dogs spreading the disease. There are horrific videos/pictures of this happening on twitter showing the bloody beaten dead dogs being thrown into the backs of trucks with bloody clubs which break their skulls apart, next to the dogs. Another point to mention as far as the grave seriousness of this disease as it is interpreted by China to do this, let alone lock down more people in their country than we have as a total population in the United States. These are both interesting stat's worth sharing, to give people an idea how SERIOUS this virus is, once it gets to their community.

    These are the stories you should be telling of the scope and impact of the coronavirus, not the history of the political correctness in their naming of it. It should be called the CvWBL-19. Cv for coronavirus, W for Wuhan and BL bio lab release. Let's face it. People need to worry a lot more about how to be prepared versus how the WHO created the name to save China face. The WHO is in bed with China, they pat them on the ass to the world, saying what a great job they did (as they hid the virus for weeks and killed their doctors who talked about the problem upfront). Those are the stories you should tell.

    RIP Dr's and nurses who spoke out upfront and since gave their lives on the front line's. Do not disrespect them sugar coating this video of the dangers we all face. May the persons responsible for releasing this virus rot in hell.

  • Thank u so much….Best explanation including epidemiology , etiology and management
    Hope a good antiviral and vaccine gets developed

  • I have in my city in iraq corona
    And we stay in homes
    The goverment didnt talk about the real numbers
    But there dead peoples the past days
    And goverement silent about that because the fail of the hospitals and the lack of medications

    And alot people comes from iran to my city have corona

    Please pray for us
    We didnt have hope to survive in this world
    Cuz our goverment failed not like china or europe 😔

  • Fear Monger- most cases it’s a secondary infection- woman in Italy had cancer. All major countries have terrible air pollution. And the virus came out 1 week after the trade agreement came out. I hope people just take care of themselves. I always get 2 colds, 1 flu and 3 nasal infections every season.

    Show more video of the actual people- I’m booking the cheapest vacations ever right now

  • From only considering Osmosis being a helpful resource to study after this video, you guys have gained so many people's respect. I love how this video raised awareness in people as well as the condolence for Dr. Li. Thanks for this video, prayers to everyone who is suffering from the COVID-19.

  • Im in italy and since monday i've been having a weird cough. although i don't feel anything other than that. it's gotten a lot worse today, but no fever or anything like that. im scared, i live alone

  • Is there a way to test if you've had the virus and recovered without knowing it?

    I got really sick right after New Year's, after being around people who'd traveled during the holidays, plus people at the gym the day before I was symptomatic. Came down with extreme fatigue + fever that wouldn't break for 5 days, plus a pounding headache (I rarely get headaches) but no nausea or cold symptoms like a stuffy nose or sore throat. I've never been sick with a headache + fever like that. After that part went away, I had fluid in my lungs for probably 2 weeks. I don't know if it was pneumonia-level, but still. If I did have the virus, I hope I didn't unknowingly give it to anyone, though I rarely left home. I didn't even hear about the virus until after I was sick.

    RIP Dr. Li and all those who have passed away .

  • my father is a cancer patient and he's been coughing for some time now .. we live in Ph and we are pretty far from the 3 cases confirmed around last week of january

  • The solution is always close to the problem this is the nature of yin and yang there will be people who try to capitalize on the problem by creating their own solution witch is just another problem this is called hegelian dialectic. To find the true solution all you need is to pay attention to details and to your gut instinct. China has a rich history of aruvedic medicine and healthy living it is no surprise that this is where this virus came from because this is where the solution resides as well.
    The solution is always close to the problem this is the nature of yin and yang there will be people who try to capitalize on the problem by creating their own solution witch is just another problem this is called hegelian dialectic. To find the true solution all you need is to pay attention to details and to your gut instinct. China has a rich history of aruvedic medicine and healthy living it is no surprise that this is where this virus came from because this is where the solution resides as well.

  • Chinese people should stop eating wild and weird animal/seafoods. Or anyone who think it is posh to eat wild and weird animal/seafood. I hope these people learn.

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